The Reticular Activating System (RAS)– Ras/ HPA & ACC/Gut – to know, perceive, recognize, have, aware, cognizant, do laugh, reverence, ask, repent, reconciliation which is a network of neurons (hyper-, hypo-, or, varied) located in the brain stem that project anteriorly to the hypothalmus to mediate behavior such as sleep, memory, and learning; as well as, both posteriorly to the and directly to the cortex for activation of awake, desynchronized cortical EEG patterns. The reticular formation (part of pons-see below) is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brain stem. It is not anatomically well-defined, because it includes neurons located in different parts of the brain. The neurons of the reticular formation make up a complex set of networks in the core of the brain stem that extend from the upper part of the midbrain to the lower part of the medulla oblongata. The reticular formation includes ascending pathways to the cortex in the ascending reticular activating system and descending pathways to the spinal cord via the reticulospinal tracts.  It is holistically and spiritually known from being a center “where we can create our own reality” whether positive, negative, or neutral. Knowing: What we focus on in our mind (thymus), pons (dream center) then comes to fruition here in our RAS. The reticular activating system’s fundamental role is regulating arousal and sleep−wake transitions. The ascending projections of the reticular activating system enhance the attentive state of the cortex and facilitate conscious perception of sensory stimuli. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013218/; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray701.png; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticular_formation].
Targeting these cells, as reported in the journal #Nature Neuroscience, modulated memory retrieval and altered anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Essentially, the #UNC scientists boosted the electrical activity between cells in the hypothalamus and the hippocampus to create new neurons – an important process called neurogenesis “Targeting the hypothalamic neurons to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis will not only benefit brain functions,” said senior author @Juan Song, PhD, associate professor of pharmacology, “but also holds the potential to treat cognitive and affective deficits associated with various brain disorders.” [Retrieved from https://neurosciencenews.com/optogenetics-neurogenesis-20603/].
Note: the thalamus has been found to be less passive in cognitive functions may indeed be supported by a more general role in shaping mental representations. Several features of thalamocortical circuits are consistent with this suggested role, and we highlight how divergent and convergent thalamocortical and corticothalamic pathways may complement each other to support these functions. Furthermore, the role of the thalamus for subcortical integration is highlighted as a key mechanism for maintaining and updating representations. [Retrieved from https://www.jneurosci.org/content/39/1/3?fbclid=IwAR1mUDSUOD3kolCFIoVRTXf6rsLZ6nbZfnMI8oRUEgwZ37EI8ppd3USLD2s].
The ACC (see top)- is part of RAS (Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland) associated with the alta major chakra and shame.
HPA (see top)-(Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis) associated with the soma chakra and anger.
Both are associated with the thymus chakra aka vagus nerve chakra.
Note: Important RAS info. includes the following excerpt… ‘The RAS is said to be the gas pedal [slow (hypo-), accelerate (hyper-) or varied cognitive speed processing] that ignites the diencephalon (the hypothalamus and thalamus) as well as the cortical areas [where all long-term memory/storage takes place] of the brain’ (Petty 1996). https://nlpca.com/creating-an-optimal-future-for-yourself/
Daniel Kahneman is correct, engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking [hypo-; as well hyper-, varied speed processing]. [Retrieved from https://suebehaviouraldesign.com/about-us/contact/See]
Images Below: Left- hyper speed processing, Right- hypo- speed processing (then vice versa)
Summary: Study implicates the gene DJ1 in neuronal death associated with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease affects about 7 million people worldwide, according to data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). This neurodegenerative disorder affects the central nervous system and, although its causes are not yet fully understood, it is known that many of its symptoms are due to the loss of neurons that produce dopamine. [retrieved from https://neurosciencenews.com/dj1-gene-parkinsons-20588/%5D. https://neurosciencenews.com/dj1-gene-parkinsons-20588/