Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional system regulation using a spiritual growth-oriented learning model 2.3

Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional system regulation using a spiritual growth-oriented learning model. Nurture Their Nature Newsletter. T. Cook, 2023 Feb.: V.1 A.8

The RAS (Reticular Activating System) and ACC (Anterior Cingulate Cortex) are two brain regions that are involved in noradrenergic signaling, which is the transmission of nerve impulses that involve the neurotransmitter noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Studies have suggested that dysregulation of noradrenergic signaling in the RAS and ACC may be involved in the development of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. For example, altered noradrenergic signaling in the ACC has been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the RAS have been linked to disorders of consciousness such as coma and persistent vegetative state [1,3].

The RAS is a network of neurons that spans the brainstem and is involved in regulating the level of wakefulness and arousal. Noradrenergic signaling within the RAS can enhance alertness and attention, as well as promote the consolidation of memories [5,17,15]. The ACC is a region of the brain that is involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional processes, including attention, decision-making, and emotional regulation. Noradrenergic signaling within the ACC has been shown to play a role in modulating these processes, particularly in response to stressful or emotionally salient stimuli [9,14]. 

Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties reading, writing, and spelling that are not explained by intelligence, motivation, or sensory deficits. In terms of noradrenergic signaling, it is thought that alterations in the levels or activity of noradrenaline may affect the development, organization, and functioning of these brain regions and white matter tracts, leading to difficulties with reading and language processing. Altered noradrenergic signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of dyslexia, with studies showing differences in LC-NE system activity in individuals with dyslexia [25,18].

Noradrenaline, also known as norepinephrine, is a neurotransmitter that is involved in the “fight or flight” response and helps to regulate attention, arousal, and mood. Lower levels of noradrenaline have been associated with certain neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [19]. There is evidence to suggest that altered noradrenergic signaling may be involved in the pathophysiology of dyslexia. Noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in attention, arousal, and learning [12,27,24]. 

Research has shown that individuals with dyslexia may have altered levels of noradrenaline in their brains, which can affect their ability to focus and process information. In particular, some studies have found that dyslexic individuals have lower levels of noradrenaline in the brainstem, which is an area that is involved in the regulation of attention and arousal. Other studies have suggested that dyslexia may be associated with altered noradrenergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex, which is an area that is important for working memory and executive function [11,22,23, 29].

Studies have shown that noradrenaline can affect the growth and development of new neurons in the brain, particularly in regions that are important for learning and memory. In addition, it has been suggested that noradrenaline may play a role in the maintenance and plasticity of white matter, helping to support the ongoing communication between different regions of the brain [2, 21,28,30].  

Gray matter is composed of neuron cell bodies and synapses, while white matter is composed of myelinated axons that allow communication between different brain regions [8]. Studies have suggested that dyslexia may be associated with differences in the structure and function of gray matter regions that are involved in language processing, working memory, and attention. For example, there is evidence to suggest that dyslexic individuals may have smaller gray matter volumes in the left hemisphere of the brain, which is the hemisphere that is typically dominant for language processing [25]. Research has also suggested that noradrenaline may play a role in the development and maintenance of both grey and white matter in the brain. Grey matter refers to the regions of the brain that contain the cell bodies of neurons, while white matter refers to the regions that contain the axons, or nerve fibers, that connect neurons [15]. 

White matter refers to the bundles of nerve fibers that connect different regions of the brain, while gray matter refers to the areas of the brain that contain cell bodies and synapses. Some studies have suggested that dyslexia may be associated with alterations in the development or organization of white matter tracts that are involved in language processing and reading comprehension. These changes may affect the efficiency and speed of information processing in the brain [8,4].

Cook’s Call For Research 

It appears that there is a need for further research into the connection between religious experiences and changes in noradrenergic signaling in the brain has also been studied, but more study is needed to confirm this conclusion. Such concepts as these related to faith and spirituality, also need to be researched and findings may include: spiritual activities such as prayer, praise, worship and scripture reading activate or engage certain neural networks in the brain, including those involving attention, decision-making, and emotion regulation [a].  The RAS (reticular activating system) is a complex network of neurons in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in regulating wakefulness, attention, and arousal. It receives inputs from various sensory and cognitive systems and sends outputs to other brain regions, including the ACC (anterior cingulate cortex). Research has shown that the ACC and RAS have different amounts of white and gray matter. For example, studies have found that individuals with a larger ACC volume may have better cognitive control and emotion regulation. The, the ACC and RAS are both important for controlling behavior, but the ACC is more involved in higher-level executive functions, such as decision-making and regulating emotions, whereas the RAS is more involved in basic functions like sensory processing. In addition, individuals with a larger RAS volume may have better attentional and sensory processing. Therefore, the pathophysiology of dyslexia is linked to altered noradrenergic signaling in white and gray matter. However, there is evidence to suggest that changes in both the white matter and gray matter of the brain may play a role. The exact cellular mechanisms underlying the association between altered noradrenergic signaling and dyslexia are not yet fully understood, there is evidence to suggest that changes in both white matter and gray matter may play a role in the development of this disorder. Overall, the RAS and ACC play important roles in noradrenergic signaling and have been implicated in a variety of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these processes and their implications for human health, mental wellness, and disease.

This research can also explore how brain function and neurotransmitters influence religious beliefs and experiences in the future. A call to research will include a direct relationship between white and gray matters, a direct relationship between noradrenergic signaling, and a direct relationship with God’s insight and the ability to know it [c]. Studies are being conducted to determine how brain function and religious experiences are related, including whether noradrenaline plays a role. It is thought that noradrenaline, which is released when people experience intense emotion, may cause the brain to produce a certain type of electrical activity. This is linked to religious experiences. Therefore, scientists and theologians can explore how changes in noradrenaline levels can affect brain function and religious experiences. Noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in arousal, attention, and the stress response, among other functions. Even though we do not fully understand how noradrenaline plays a role in dyslexia pathophysiology, there is growing evidence that altered noradrenergic signaling may play a significant role in dyslexia. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings in order to develop effective dyslexic treatments. The ACC is a region of the brain located in the frontal lobes that is involved in various cognitive and emotional processes, such as decision-making, error detection, conflict monitoring, and empathy. It is also connected to other brain regions that have responsibilities for higher-order cognitive and emotional functions, such as those that receive input from the RAS, in addition to receiving input from multiple brain regions.

Such Christ-like insights to help mental and emotional help verses:

  1. “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.” – Matthew 11:28. This verse offers comfort and rest for those who are struggling with mental and emotional health issues. Jesus invites us to come to him and find peace.
  2. “Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother or sister has something against you, leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to them; then come and offer your gift.” – Matthew 5:23-24. This verse speaks to the importance of addressing and resolving conflicts in our relationships in order to maintain healthy emotional wellbeing.
  3. “Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable—if anything is excellent or praiseworthy—think about such things.” – Philippians 4:8. This verse encourages us to focus on positive and uplifting thoughts, rather than dwelling on negative or harmful thoughts that can contribute to poor mental health.
  4. “But he said to me, ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.’ Therefore I will boast all the more gladly about my weaknesses, so that Christ’s power may rest on me.” – 2 Corinthians 12:9. This verse reminds us that even in our weaknesses, we can find strength and grace through Christ. We do not have to carry our burdens alone, but can lean on his power and presence for emotional and mental support. “Health: Bible Reading Plans & Daily Devotionals: Youversion Bible.” YouVersion | The Bible App |, 

Note: An empirical investigation of the neural and physiological correlates of religious or spiritual practices can help shed light on the mechanisms underlying these experiences and their effects on mental health and well-being. Such research can also help clarify the potential therapeutic applications of these practices. It is important to note that scientific investigations of religious or spiritual experiences must be conducted with rigor and objectivity. Researchers must be careful to avoid bias or preconceived notions about the effects of these practices. Researchers must use appropriate methods and controls to ensure the validity of their findings. By establishing a clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relationship between the thymus gland and emotional and social functioning, researchers may be able to develop new interventions to support mental health and well-being, and to promote healthy emotional and social development.

For more information: ©2018, In-Text Citation: [a] Cook T. Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional System Regulation Using a Spiritual Growth-Oriented Learning Model; Feb; 2023; myelbert. [b] N T Nature – Helping Those with a Neurodiversity Enjoy Learning Again (Updated) Part I. Scribd; [c] Cook’s Nurture Their Nature Part I. Methodology is shown in the outer columns, resultant data sets in the middle columns, and model systems in the center. © 2003 Nature Publishing Group.


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Published by Tricia Cook, MEd., Online Dyslexia and Behavioral Interventionist, RSP, AA O-G Tutor & Montessorian

Dyslexia Screenings & Emotional Intensive Intervention - Staff Training - Online Courses- Consultancy- Tutoring-Reliance and Family Coaching I have a unique approach in helping individuals achieve their full potential. With over two and a half decades of experience, I have a passion for learning new techniques and being at the forefront of groundbreaking advancements in education. As a graduate of the renowned Auburn University, I have earned both her BA in ECE and Masters Degree in Secondary with Reading Specialist certification from the University of Alabama. I have experience at the Montessori School in Birmingham which has provided me with valuable insights into the best practices of teaching young minds. I have also developed training programs for teachers, providing essential support to students with neurodiverse needs such as dyslexia, ADHD, and autism spectrum. I have focus on developing a "whole child" pedagogy that caters to all modes of learning, I continually work with Dr. Joseph Nwoye on teaching and learning including DEI. I have helped develop programs and training with SDIG ( in promoting the intersectionality of the complexities and complicated issues of diversity. I have credentials as a reading specialist with a speech pathology background expanded greatly while owning Cook's Independent Tutoring, Coaching, Consulting, LLC. I currently pursuing a Neurodiversity Family Coaching certification in the framework of the CReW Coaching Institute. Again, I have a commitment to being at the forefront of groundbreaking advancements in education. As an enthusiastic learner and educator, I am confident that I have the necessary skills to support others in achieving their goals ( For more information, contact Tricia Cook, Cook's Independent, Tutoring, Coaching and Consulting, LLC. (;

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