Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional system regulation using a spiritual growth-oriented learning model. Nurture Their Nature Newsletter. T. Cook, 2023 Feb.: V.1 A.8
The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NE system) plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological and cognitive processes, and dysregulation of this system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodevelopmental disorders. The LC-NE system is a group of neurons located in the brainstem, specifically in the locus coeruleus region, that produce the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline). The LC-NE system is involved in a wide range of physiological and cognitive processes, including regulation of arousal, attention, learning and memory, stress response, and mood [8,4,21,18,26].
The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system (LC-NE) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various neurodevelopmental disorders. Here are some examples of such disorders: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Dysfunction in the LC-NE system has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD, with studies showing altered activity in the LC-NE system in individuals with ADHD. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. Altered noradrenergic signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD, with studies showing differences in LC-NE system activity in individuals with ASD [3,33].
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics, which are sudden, repetitive, and involuntary movements or sounds. Abnormalities in the LC-NE system have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of TS, with studies showing altered activity in the LC-NE system in individuals with TS . Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties reading, writing, and spelling. Altered noradrenergic signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of dyslexia, with studies showing differences in LC-NE system activity in individuals with dyslexia [34,6].
The LC-NE system is highly interconnected with other neural systems, including the PONS, RAS, and ARAS, and modulates the activity of these systems. For example, the LC-NE system has been shown to increase activity in the PONS during wakefulness and REM sleep, and to enhance the activity of the ARAS during attention tasks [4,7]. Dysregulation of the LC-NE system has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including ADHD, depression, and anxiety. Understanding the functioning of the LC-NE system and its interactions with other neural systems is therefore an important area of research with potential clinical applications [24,5].
It is important to note that the interaction between PONS (pons varolii), RAS (reticular activating system), and ARAS (ascending reticular activating system) is crucial for regulating wakefulness, arousal, attention, and other cognitive functions. It is possible for these systems and brain mechanisms that when dysregulated, result in sleep disorders, and attention deficit disorder (ADHD) [41, 42]. There are numerous physiological and cognitive processes affected by the LC-NE system, which modulates the HPA axis and ACC . Although they are not part of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NE) system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are connected to it and influence its activity.
When the body perceives a threat, the hypothalamus in the brain releases a hormone called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH, in turn, stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress. The LC-NE system is involved in modulating the activity of the HPA axis, with noradrenaline from the LC-NE system activating the release of CRH from the hypothalamus [41,32,28].
The ACC, on the other hand, is a region of the brain involved in cognitive control, emotion regulation, and pain perception. The ACC receives noradrenergic input from the LC-NE system and is influenced by its activity . Research has shown that noradrenaline released by the LC-NE system enhances ACC activity during tasks that require cognitive control or emotion regulation. The gut-brain axis and the thalamus are important components of the complex network of neural and endocrine pathways involved in regulating various physiological and cognitive processes, including stress response, pain processing, and attention. The gut-brain axis and the thalamus are not part of the HPA axis, ACC, or the LC-NE system, but they are interconnected with these systems and can influence their activity [23,30,8,7,9].
The gut-brain axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS). The gut is a major source of hormones, neurotransmitters, and immune molecules that can influence the activity of the CNS . The HPA axis can be activated by stressors originating in the gut, such as inflammation or infection. Similarly, the gut can be influenced by the activity of the HPA axis and the ACC, with stress and anxiety affecting gut motility, secretion, and inflammation [20,27,43].
Lastly, the thalamus is a structure in the brain that acts as a relay station for sensory information, transmitting signals from the periphery to different regions of the brain. The thalamus is interconnected with the ACC and the LC-NE system, and can modulate their activity. For example, the thalamus is involved in transmitting sensory information to the ACC during pain processing, and is modulated by noradrenergic input from the LC-NE system during attention tasks [35,26,40].
Cook’s Call for Research
There needs to be research examining the effects of LC-NE activity on thymus function. Alternately, LC-NE activity may also affect thymus function. Moreover, there is a need for more research to be done on how the neuroimmune axis interacts with the LC-NE system, which is complex and multifaceted, and further research is necessary in order to understand exactly how these interactions work for one’s mental health and overall well-being [a]. Specifically, The HPA axis is a complex hormonal pathway involved in the stress response. Stress, known to activate the LC-NE system, has been shown to affect immune function, including the function of the thymus. It is possible that investigating the effects of LC-NE activity on the thymus could provide insight into how this relationship is established. It is important to note that the thymus gland is not directly related to the interaction between PONS, RAS, and ARAS. Instead, it is an integral part of the immune system, which is responsible for the development and maturation of T cells. These cells are the key component of the body’s defense against diseases and infections. However, there is some evidence to suggest that the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) may interact by using a network of neural and endocrine pathways that is known as the neuroimmune axis, which is a network of neural and endocrine pathways. The exact nature of this relationship is not entirely clear and is a subject of active research in this area. It is possible that this neuroimmune axis may play a role in modulating the activity of the PONS, the RAS, and the ARAS [a].
Research is needed to examine the effects of LC-NE activity on thymus function on spiritual development and awakening of one’s “own being.” Understanding how these systems interact and regulate various cognitive processes is also important. Theologians and Scientists together can use neuroeducation and neurophysiological processes to develop new treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders [c]. Specifically, one being transformed into “God’s being” which is His essence. For instance, the doctrine of God, known as theology proper within systematic theology, is concerned with God’s essence, attributes, and works. Theology proper seeks to understand and explain these attributes and how they relate to God’s nature and actions. Works refer to God’s actions and interventions in the world, including His creation of the universe, His involvement in human history, and His redemptive work through Christ. Theology proper seeks to understand these works and how they reflect God’s nature and attributes. Overall, the doctrine of God seeks to deepen our understanding of who God is, how He relates to the world and humanity, and how we can respond to Him in worship and obedience [b]. The study of neuroscience and the study of theology has potential for interdisciplinary exploration and collaboration between individuals in these fields. This will further our understanding of the brain, behavior, and spiritual experiences. Researchers have used various neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the neural pathways and processes involved in the interaction between these systems. One important finding is that the PONS, RAS, and ARAS work together to regulate arousal and sleep. The PONS is responsible for generating REM sleep, while the RAS and ARAS regulate wakefulness and non-REM sleep. Dysregulation of these systems can result in sleep disorders such as insomnia or narcolepsy. Another finding is that the PONS, RAS, and ARAS also play a role in regulating attention and cognitive processes. For example, the ARAS is involved in activating the cortex during tasks that require attention, while the RAS is involved in filtering out irrelevant stimuli .
It is necessary to conduct more research to determine the neurophysiological, neurosocial, and neurological consequences of not knowing God’s nature or our own Godly nature through the doctrine of God. Theology proper, also referred to as theology proper, is a branch of systematic theology that examines God’s nature, attributes, and actions. As the name suggests, “God’s being” is God’s essence. Theology itself seeks to understand the nature of God and how this nature is reflected in His actions and attributes. There needs to be further research that provides further support for the role of religion and spirituality in mental health and well-being, as well as what are the neurophysiological, neurosocial, and neurological implications of not knowing God’s nature or our own Godly nature; how The doctrine of God is also associated with altered brain structure and function [c]. The ARAS (Ascending Reticular Activating System) is a model for the neural mechanisms that control attention and arousal in the brainstem. It is believed to play a key role in the regulation of consciousness, attention, and alertness [a]. A growing body of research examines the relationship between religious beliefs and mental health outcomes, such as depression and suicide risk. In addition, studies have shown that religious belief can affect brain structure and function, including the size and activity of certain brain regions. For example, research has shown that the practice of meditation, which is often associated with spiritual and religious beliefs, can lead to changes in brain structure and function. Hence, one not knowing God’s nature and/or our own Godly nature could therefore have neurological implications and “Just as a body, though one, has many parts, but all its many parts form one body, so it is with Christ.” 1 Corinthians 12:12
The neurophysiological, neurosocial, and neurological implications of not knowing God’s nature or our own Godly nature is complex and multifaceted. Today, there are problems in the areas of mental health, health and wellness, and here are a few possible implications of not knowing God or our own Godly nature:
- There is increased stress and anxiety. Belief in God has been linked to lower levels of stress and anxiety, likely due to the sense of security and meaning that comes from having faith. Not knowing God’s nature or our own Godly nature could therefore lead to increased stress and anxiety. In a 2015 study published in the Journal of Affective Disorders found that individuals who reported higher levels of religious and spiritual beliefs had lower rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. Factors such as the type of religious belief, the degree of religious involvement, and individual differences can all play a role in how religious beliefs impact mental health. The doctrine of God refers to God’s Insights into ‘Just as a body’, and sanctification into God’s Holiness: God’s attributes or actions…Isaiah 6:3, the seraphim declare, “Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.” and 1 Peter 1:16 – “Be holy, because I am holy.” and “Just as a body, though one, has many parts, but all its many parts form one body, so it is with Christ.” 1 Corinthians 12:12
- There is a decreased sense of purpose. Believing in a higher power and understanding our place in the world as part of a divine plan can give us a sense of purpose and direction. Without this understanding, we may feel lost or aimless. A 2016 study published in the Journal of Religion and Health found that religious involvement was associated with lower rates of suicide among young adults. It’s worth noting that these implications are not necessarily universal and can vary depending on individual factors such as upbringing, culture, and personal beliefs. His Instructions ‘though one’, into God’s Love: The doctrine of God, also refers to “God’s being” refers to the essence…1 John 4:8 – “Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love.”
- There is a reduced empathy and social connection. Research has shown that religious belief can promote empathy and prosocial behavior. Not knowing God’s nature or our own Godly nature could therefore lead to reduced empathy and social connection. A 2017 study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology found that religious and spiritual beliefs were protective factors against suicidal behavior among adults with depression. His Commands ‘has many parts’, into God’s Omnipotence: The doctrine of God, also refers to God’s qualities or characteristics…Jeremiah 32:17 – “Ah, Sovereign LORD, you have made the heavens and the earth by your great power and outstretched arm. Nothing is too hard for you.”
- There is Increased risk of mental health issues. Belief in God has been linked to better mental health outcomes, including lower rates of depression and suicide. Not knowing God’s nature or our own Godly nature could therefore increase the risk of mental health issues. His Oaths ‘but all its many parts form one body, so it is with Christ’ upon God’s Omniscience: The doctrine of God, also refers to God’s qualities or characteristics…Isaiah 46:10 – “I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say, ‘My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please.'” and (see again His Insights) “Just as a body, though one, has many parts, but all its many parts form one body, so it is with Christ.” 1 Corinthians 12:12
Theology proper seeks to understand and explain these attributes and how they relate to God’s nature and actions. Works refer to God’s actions and interventions in the world, including His creation of the universe, His involvement in human history, and His redemptive work through Christ. Theology proper seeks to understand these works and how they reflect God’s nature and attributes. Overall, the doctrine of God seeks to deepen our understanding of who God is, how He relates to the world and humanity, and how we can respond to Him in worship and obedience. The doctrine of God, also referred to as theology proper, is a branch of systematic theology that focuses on the study of:
God’s Holiness: God’s attributes or actions
- Example: In Isaiah 6:3, the seraphim declare, “Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.”
God’s Love: “God’s being” refers to the essence
- Example: John 3:16 – “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.”
God’s Omnipotence: God’s qualities or characteristics
- Example: Genesis 18:14 – “Is anything too hard for the LORD? I will return to you at the appointed time next year, and Sarah will have a son.”
God’s Omniscience: God’s qualities or characteristics
- Example: Psalm 139:1-4 – “You have searched me, LORD, and you know me. You know when I sit and when I rise; you perceive my thoughts from afar. You discern my going out and my lying down; you are familiar with all my ways. Before a word is on my tongue you, LORD, know it completely.”
Note: An empirical investigation of the neural and physiological correlates of religious or spiritual practices can help shed light on the mechanisms underlying these experiences and their effects on mental health and well-being. Such research can also help clarify the potential therapeutic applications of these practices. It is important to note that scientific investigations of religious or spiritual experiences must be conducted with rigor and objectivity. Researchers must be careful to avoid bias or preconceived notions about the effects of these practices. Researchers must use appropriate methods and controls to ensure the validity of their findings. By establishing a clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relationship between the thymus gland and emotional and social functioning, researchers may be able to develop new interventions to support mental health and well-being, and to promote healthy emotional and social development.
For more information: http://www.myelbert.com ©2018, In-Text Citation: [a] Cook T. Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional System Regulation Using a Spiritual Growth-Oriented Learning Model; Feb; 2023; myelbert. [b] N T Nature – Helping Those with a Neurodiversity Enjoy Learning Again (Updated) Part I. Scribd; [c] Cook’s Nurture Their Nature Part I. Methodology is shown in the outer columns, resultant data sets in the middle columns, and model systems in the center. © 2003 Nature Publishing Group.
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