Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional system regulation using a spiritual growth-oriented learning model 1.9

Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional system regulation using a spiritual growth-oriented learning model. Nurture Their Nature Newsletter. T. Cook, 2023 Feb.: V.1 A.7

Epigenetic marks are modifications to DNA or the proteins that package the DNA (such as histones) that can be passed through cell division and can affect gene expression without affecting the underlying genetic sequence of the DNA. As part of this process, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA molecules are among the various marks involved. It has been shown that they play a critical role in regulating gene expression, development, and cellular differentiation [10].

A key component of the relevance of epigenetics is that epigenetic changes are reversible and do not change your DNA sequence. However, they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence. Epigenetic changes can have a significant impact on the development of neurodevelopmental disorders, and many studies have identified specific epigenetic modifications [19]. Here are some examples of the impact of epigenetic changes on neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Studies have found alterations in DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns in individuals with ASD, particularly in genes involved in neuronal development and synaptic function [12, 18, 5]. 

Epigenetic modifications refer to changes in gene expression or activity that do not involve alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. These modifications are often influenced by environmental factors, such as nutrition, stress, and chemical exposure, and can be passed down from one generation to the next [17]. Epigenetic modifications can occur through several mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA molecules. DNA methylation involves the addition of a methyl group to a cytosine nucleotide, which can silence gene expression. Histone modification refers to changes in the proteins that package DNA in the cell nucleus, which can also affect gene expression. Non-coding RNA molecules can regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNA molecules or by directly binding to DNA [16, 7] .

Epigenetic modifications are essential for normal development and cellular differentiation. However, they can also play a role in the development of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders [15]. Understanding the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation is an active area of research and may have important implications for the development of new therapies and preventative interventions. Therefore, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by several factors, including: external factors such as diet, toxins, and stress can alter the epigenetic marks on our genes; epigenetic changes can occur during embryonic development, and at different stages of life, such as childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; epigenetic marks can accumulate or be lost as we age, influencing gene expression and potentially contributing to age-related diseases; and habits such as exercise, sleep, and social interaction can affect epigenetic modifications and gene expression [13, 14]. 

However, research has shown that spiritual practices, such as prayer, meditation, and religious worship, have been associated with changes in gene expression and epigenetic modifications. There is growing evidence suggesting that prayer, praise, and worship can play a role in regulating gene expression, development, and cellular differentiation through epigenetic mechanisms. Studies have shown that spiritual practices such as meditation, prayer, and yoga can modulate gene expression by altering DNA methylation patterns, histone modifications, and microRNA expression [8, 1] For example, one study found that regular prayer and meditation were associated with reduced activity of genes involved in inflammation and stress response. However, they increased the activity of genes involved in immune function. Another study found that listening to Christian music and worship songs was associated with changes in gene expression patterns related to stress and immune function [4, 3, 9].

Cook’s Call For More Research 

Though epigenetics is a relatively new field of study, more research on growing in faith needs to be conducted in order to fully understand how prayer, praise, and worship affect epigenetic mechanisms even though epigenetics is a relatively new field of study. It should be noted however that these practices have been shown to have positive effects on both mental and physical health. In addition, they are powerful tools for personal growth and spiritual development. Here are some ways someone can become more Christ-like in faithfulness: 

  1. Consistent Prayer Life- Christ’s life was marked by a consistent prayer life. As followers of Christ, we can be Christ-like in faithfulness by developing a consistent prayer life. This includes setting aside regular time for prayer and making it a priority in our daily routine.
  2. Commitment to God’s Word- Christ was faithful in His commitment to the Word of God. He studied it, memorized it, and lived it out in His daily life. We can be Christ-like in faithfulness by committing ourselves to the study of God’s Word, meditating on it, and applying it to our lives.
  3. Serving Others- Christ’s life was marked by a commitment to serving others. As followers of Christ, we can be Christ-like in faithfulness by serving others with love and compassion. This includes serving our families, our community, and those in need.
  4. Enduring Trials- Christ endured many trials and difficulties during His life, but He remained faithful to His Father’s will. As followers of Christ, we can be Christ-like in faithfulness by enduring trials with patience and faith, trusting in God’s sovereignty and goodness. We can also lean on our community of faith for support during difficult times.

The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him— the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of might, the Spirit of knowledge and fear of the LORD Isaiah 11:2

Note: Empirical investigation of the neural and physiological correlates of religious or spiritual practices can help shed light on the mechanisms underlying these experiences and their effects on mental health and well-being. Such research can also help clarify the potential therapeutic applications of these practices. It is important to note that scientific investigations of religious or spiritual experiences must be conducted with rigor and objectivity. Researchers must be careful to avoid bias or preconceived notions about the effects of these practices. Researchers must use appropriate methods and controls to ensure the validity of their findings [b]. 

For more information: ©2018, In-Text Citation: [a] Cook T. Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional System Regulation Using a Spiritual Growth-Oriented Learning Model; Feb; 2023; myelbert. [b] N T Nature – Helping Those with a Neurodiversity Enjoy Learning Again (Updated) Part I. Scribd, Methodology is shown in the outer columns, resultant data sets in the middle columns, and model systems in the center. © 2003 Nature Publishing Group. 


  1. Anderson, Micheline R, et al. “Genetic Correlates of Spirituality/Religion and Depression: A Study in Offspring and Grandchildren at High and Low Familial Risk for Depression.” Spirituality in Clinical Practice (Washington, D.C.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Mar. 2017,
  2. Al Aboud NM, Tupper C, Jialal I. Genetics, Epigenetic Mechanism. [Updated 2022 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from:
  3. Bhasin, M. K., Dusek, J. A., Chang, B. H., Joseph, M. G., Denninger, J. W., Fricchione, G. L., … & Benson, H. (2013). Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways. PloS one, 8(5), e62817.
  4. Buric, I., Farias, M., Jong, J., Mee, C., & Brazil, I. A. (2017). What is the molecular signature of mind-body interventions? A systematic review of gene expression changes induced by meditation and related practices. Frontiers in immunology, 8, 670. 
  5. Dusek, J. A., & Benson, H. (2009). Mind-body medicine: a model of the comparative clinical impact of the acute stress and relaxation responses. Minerva medica, 100(6), 427-434. 
  6. Eshraghi, Adrien A., et al. “Epigenetics and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Is There a Correlation?” Frontiers, Frontiers, 6 Mar. 2018, 
  7. Fernandes, Juliane C R, et al. “Long Non-Coding RNAS in the Regulation of Gene Expression: Physiology and Disease.” Non-Coding RNA, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 17 Feb. 2019,
  8. Hoge, E. A., Chen, M. M., Orr, E., Metcalf, C. A., Fischer, L. E., Pollack, M. H., … & Simon, N. M. (2018). Loving-kindness meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 68, 183-190. 
  9. Holmes, Laurens, et al. “Implication of Spiritual Network Support System in Epigenomic Modulation and Health Trajectory.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 25 Oct. 2019,
  10. Miller JL, Grant PA. The role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in transcriptional regulation in humans. Subcell Biochem. 2013;61:289-317. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4525-4_13. PMID: 23150256; PMCID: PMC6611551. 
  11. Moosavi, Azam, and Ali Motevalizadeh Ardekani. “Role of Epigenetics in Biology and Human Diseases.” Iranian Biomedical Journal, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Nov. 2016, 
  12. Oztenekecioglu B, Mavis M, Osum M, Kalkan R. Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Glob Med Genet. 2021 Sep 15;8(4):144-148. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1735540. PMID: 34877571; PMCID: PMC8635813.
  13. Rothstein MA, Cai Y, Marchant GE. The ghost in our genes: legal and ethical implications of epigenetics. Health Matrix (Cleveland, Ohio : 1991). 2009 ;19(1):1-62. PMID: 19459537; PMCID: PMC3034450.  
  14. Rozek LS, Dolinoy DC, Sartor MA, Omenn GS. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2014;35:105-22. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182513. PMID: 24641556; PMCID: PMC4480875. 
  15. Samanta S, Rajasingh S, Cao T, Dawn B, Rajasingh J. Epigenetic dysfunctional diseases and therapy for infection and inflammation. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017 Feb;1863(2):518-528. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.11.030. Epub 2016 Dec 3. PMID: 27919711; PMCID: PMC5222695. 
  16. Statello, L., Guo, CJ., Chen, LL. et al. Gene regulation by long non-coding RNAs and its biological functions. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 22, 96–118 (2021). 
  17. “What Is Epigenetics?” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 15 Aug. 2022, 
  18. Yoon SH, Choi J, Lee WJ, Do JT. Genetic and Epigenetic Etiology Underlying Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Clin Med. 2020 Mar 31;9(4):966. doi: 10.3390/jcm9040966. PMID: 32244359; PMCID: PMC7230567. 
  19. Zoghbi, Huda Y, and Arthur L Beaudet. “Epigenetics and Human Disease.” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Feb. 2016,

Published by Tricia Cook, MEd., Online Dyslexia and Behavioral Interventionist, RSP, AA O-G Tutor & Montessorian

Dyslexia Screenings & Emotional Intensive Intervention - Staff Training - Online Courses- Consultancy- Tutoring-Reliance and Family Coaching I have a unique approach in helping individuals achieve their full potential. With over two and a half decades of experience, I have a passion for learning new techniques and being at the forefront of groundbreaking advancements in education. As a graduate of the renowned Auburn University, I have earned both her BA in ECE and Masters Degree in Secondary with Reading Specialist certification from the University of Alabama. I have experience at the Montessori School in Birmingham which has provided me with valuable insights into the best practices of teaching young minds. I have also developed training programs for teachers, providing essential support to students with neurodiverse needs such as dyslexia, ADHD, and autism spectrum. I have focus on developing a "whole child" pedagogy that caters to all modes of learning, I continually work with Dr. Joseph Nwoye on teaching and learning including DEI. I have helped develop programs and training with SDIG ( in promoting the intersectionality of the complexities and complicated issues of diversity. I have credentials as a reading specialist with a speech pathology background expanded greatly while owning Cook's Independent Tutoring, Coaching, Consulting, LLC. I currently pursuing a Neurodiversity Family Coaching certification in the framework of the CReW Coaching Institute. Again, I have a commitment to being at the forefront of groundbreaking advancements in education. As an enthusiastic learner and educator, I am confident that I have the necessary skills to support others in achieving their goals ( For more information, contact Tricia Cook, Cook's Independent, Tutoring, Coaching and Consulting, LLC. (;

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