Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional system regulation using a spiritual growth-oriented learning model 1.5

Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional system regulation using a spiritual growth-oriented learning model. Nurture Their Nature Newsletter. T. Cook, 2023 Feb.: V.1 A.5

Emotions such as anger and shame can trigger signaling pathways within the brain and body, leading to a range of physiological and psychological responses [a]. These emotions can activate the sympathetic nervous system, which prepares the body for a “fight or flight” response, leading to an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and adrenaline release [2]. The parasympathetic nervous system has an opposite effect and is responsible for the “rest and digest” response, which helps to promote relaxation and restore the body to a calm, balanced state after periods of stress. 

When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated, heart rate and breathing rate slow down, which can lead to feelings of relaxation and calmness. However, excessive activation of the parasympathetic nervous system can also lead to lethargy and a feeling of “shut down.” This can sometimes occur in students who may experience high levels of stress and anxiety, leading to chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system. When this happens, the parasympathetic nervous system may become overactive in an attempt to restore balance, leading to feelings of lethargy, fatigue, and a lack of motivation [4].

It is critical to find a balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in order to maintain optimal health and well-being. Practices such as mindfulness meditation, yoga, and deep breathing exercises can help to promote this balance by reducing chronic stress and promoting relaxation. Additionally, getting enough rest and practicing healthy sleep hygiene can also help to maintain a healthy balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems [10]. Chronic activation of the para/sympathetic nervous system can have negative effects on health, leading to an increased risk of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and depression [6]. 

Therefore, it is essential to regulate and manage emotions to maintain optimal health and well-being. 

Epigenetic modulators can potentially modulate gene expression related to emotions and stress responses, affecting the functioning of the limbic system. Some research suggests that certain epigenetic modifications may be associated with increased vulnerability to stress and mood disorders [7, 5]. Epigenetic modulators are compounds or substances that can modify the activity of genes without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, play a crucial role in regulating gene expression. Therefore, modulating these modifications can have significant effects on gene activity and cellular function [3].

Regarding the limbic system, equanimity, or a state of calm and balance, can have a positive impact on the function of the limbic system. This is especially true in areas related to learning, motivation, emotion, and memory. High-stress emotional states, on the other hand, can disrupt the limbic system’s function and lead to maladaptive behaviors and emotions. Therefore, techniques and interventions that promote equanimity and reduce stress can be helpful in maintaining optimal limbic system function [11].

Signaling pathways are critical for the transmission of signals within and between cells, allowing cells to sense and respond to their environment. Post-translational modifications, which are chemical modifications that occur after a protein is synthesized, play a crucial role in regulating signaling pathways [13]. For example, phosphorylation, a common post-translational modification, can activate or inactivate proteins involved in signaling pathways by adding or removing a phosphate group. Other post-translational modifications, such as acetylation, methylation, and ubiquitination, can also modulate protein activity and function within signaling pathways [8]. 

The thymus is an organ involved in the development of T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the immune response. Intercellular signaling pathways are essential for proper thymus development and function, as signals between different cell types are necessary for the differentiation and maturation of T cells [1].

Cook’s Call For More Research

Studying signaling pathways is a common analysis performed across diverse disciplines, including cell biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and disease research. By understanding how signals are transmitted and regulated, researchers can develop new therapies for various diseases and gain insights into fundamental biological processes [12]. Therefore, more research into maintaining a state of equanimity and balance within the limbic system can have a positive impact on emotional regulation and stress management. This needs to be addressed for students of neurodiversity including practices such as mindfulness, prayer, praise and worship, meditation, exercise, and stress reduction techniques [b]. 

There are several natural and synthetic compounds that have been identified as epigenetic modulators, as well as dietary compounds like resveratrol and curcumin [9]. Resveratrol is found in grapes, wine, grape juice, peanuts, cocoa, and berries. Vaccinium species, including blueberries, bilberries, and cranberries. Turmeric powder and root can be added to many foods, such as curries, sauces, salad dressings, rice, potatoes and meats. These compounds have therapeutic potential for various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. 

Several holistic and spiritual practices can help to promote equanimity and lessen the negative effects of chronic stress on the body and mind. By reducing the activation of stress-related signaling pathways, these practices can potentially improve mental and physical health. Certain practices such as mindfulness meditation, yoga, and deep breathing exercises can help to activate the parasympathetic nervous system, resulting in relaxation. These will reduce the negative effects of chronic stress on the body and mind. 

These practices can help to balance the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, promoting overall health and well-being. Spiritual practices such as prayer, meditation, and community involvement can provide a sense of connection and meaning, which can alleviate stress and improve overall well-being. By promoting equanimity and reducing stress-related signaling pathways, these practices can potentially improve mental and physical health, and enhance overall quality of life.

For more information: © 2018, In-Text Citation: [a] Cook T. Cook’s FSD Dysregulation: Functional System Regulation Using a Spiritual Growth-Oriented Learning Model; Feb; 2023; myelbert. [b] N T Nature – Helping Those with a Neurodiversity Enjoy Learning Again (Updated) Part I. Scribd, Methodology is shown in the outer columns, resultant data sets in the middle columns, and model systems in the center. © 2003 Nature Publishing Group.  


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Published by Tricia Cook, MEd., Online Dyslexia and Behavioral Interventionist, RSP, AA O-G Tutor & Montessorian

Dyslexia Screenings & Emotional Intensive Intervention - Staff Training - Online Courses- Consultancy- Tutoring-Reliance and Family Coaching I have a unique approach in helping individuals achieve their full potential. With over two and a half decades of experience, I have a passion for learning new techniques and being at the forefront of groundbreaking advancements in education. As a graduate of the renowned Auburn University, I have earned both her BA in ECE and Masters Degree in Secondary with Reading Specialist certification from the University of Alabama. I have experience at the Montessori School in Birmingham which has provided me with valuable insights into the best practices of teaching young minds. I have also developed training programs for teachers, providing essential support to students with neurodiverse needs such as dyslexia, ADHD, and autism spectrum. I have focus on developing a "whole child" pedagogy that caters to all modes of learning, I continually work with Dr. Joseph Nwoye on teaching and learning including DEI. I have helped develop programs and training with SDIG ( in promoting the intersectionality of the complexities and complicated issues of diversity. I have credentials as a reading specialist with a speech pathology background expanded greatly while owning Cook's Independent Tutoring, Coaching, Consulting, LLC. I currently pursuing a Neurodiversity Family Coaching certification in the framework of the CReW Coaching Institute. Again, I have a commitment to being at the forefront of groundbreaking advancements in education. As an enthusiastic learner and educator, I am confident that I have the necessary skills to support others in achieving their goals ( For more information, contact Tricia Cook, Cook's Independent, Tutoring, Coaching and Consulting, LLC. (;

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