Epigenetics comes to Life: Anonymous author, “DNA works by way of the same principles as the mind and neurons of the brain and body.” In the “Journal Nature Neuroscience”: Intelligence ‘Networks’ Discovered In Brain For The First Time, 2015-“Remarkably, they found that some of the same genes [M1 & M3] HERE that influence human intelligence in healthy people were also the same genes that cause impaired cognitive ability and epilepsy when mutated.” “Also, studies show that autistic people have a 20% risk of having epilepsy and that people with epilepsy have a 20% chance of being autistic. The reason for this may be that the effects of epilepsy and ASD on brain structure and function overlap. Chromosome 12-GRIN2B The NMDA receptors mediate a slow -permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The early expression of this gene in development suggests a role in brain development, circuit formation, synaptic plasticity, and cellular migration and differentiation. Naturally occurring mutations within this gene are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. ” Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2904; https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/260649#link; https://ww.eurekalert.org/news-releases/675909#.YTTkWdpAnSc.twitter; https://medcraveonline.com/MOJPB/dna-the-phantom-effect-quantum-hologram-and-the-etheric-body;html?fbclid=IwAR199BUqYjWCvNGq2GCgdzl3d0n_lVzu_6na4KVVcYVuBzk-JeiM-CgRyDQ; GenBank Submit Genomes WGS Metagenomes TPA TSA INSDC
Researchers at Gladstone Institute, have found that calm reduces levels of the protein tau, which is known for its role in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions, changes excitatory and inhibitory cells in ways that make it harder for the brain to burst with overexcitation. It also promotes the maintain balance in the brain. Previously they showed in mouse models that reducing tau levels makes the brain more resistant to epilepsy of diverse causes. [Retrieved form https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/10/211019223309.htm].
Cell–cell interactions (CCIs) are physical interactions between two or more cells, which can be mediated by proteins, ligands, sugars or other biomolecules. Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are physical interaction between two proteins, often involved in structural systems, signal transduction or metabolic processes. Differentially Expressed Genes are identified as more highly (or lowly) expressed in one condition versus the other after comparison of their expression values between two conditions. Genes with restricted, constitutive or unusual pattern of expression are quantified accordingly to their characteristics to avoid miscalculation or underestimation of signals. Operational taxonomic unit—a definition used to classify groups of closely related organisms. DNA sequences can be clustered according to their similarity to one another, and operational taxonomic units are defined based on the similarity threshold (usually 97% similarity) set by the researcher. (Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2003/393029/; https://www.nature.com/articles/s41576-020-00292-x#Sec22)
Nerve cells in the human brain talk to one another at sites called synapses, where molecules are released to signal to the next cell. When people learn or remember things, this signalling is strengthened. When communication between synapses goes wrong, circuits become broken. The function of nerve cells and synapses depends on proteins that are made using information encoded in genetic material called RNA. It is thought that RNAs are located exactly where and when they are needed for synaptic signalling because some kind of synaptic ‘tag’ labels the correct active synapse. Scientists have recently learned that RNA can have a methyl group/molecule added to one of the RNA bases, which ‘marks’ the RNA message. Such adding of methyl groups can influence proteins binding to DNA or RNA and consequently stop proteins being produced. This new study shows that RNA marking can be reversed at synapses and hence may act as a ‘synaptic tag’. The findings suggest, that if disrupted, this could cause synapses and nerve cells to malfunction by influencing the formation of toxic protein clumps [causing brain injury (deficits) such in the case of developmental dyslexia in the anatomic regions called Superior Temporal Gyrus, Angular Gyrus and Supramarginal gyrus, & Broca’s region]. These genomic mechanisms involve methyl groups being put on RNA messages and importantly taken off when a synapse is active. The implications are very important for normal brain function, but also for reversible psychiatric mental conditions such as anxiety and addiction disorders and early-stage neurodegenerative diseases such as dementias.” [Retrieved from https://neurosciencenews.com/synapse-neurotransmission-19501/].
Synergism represents an efficient means of increasing the amplitude of cellular responses induced by low levels of stimulation. Recently, several kinetic and physicochemical models have been developed to describe and predict synergistic responses. Synergy mainly results from mutations in functionally related genes. In one study, on the etiology of the prevalent defects found with Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS), a systemic autoimmune disease which has cognitive effects, the synergism between aPL and anti-NMDA antibodies were explored and found a direct effect of anti-PL on neuronal cells. [Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19665253/; https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00005/full]. Note: physicochemical models include physicochemical stress(es) comprises environmental factors in the form of food/nutrition, noise, pollution, metabolic disorder, infection, and inflammation. [Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/5755/stress-and-immunity].
In recent years, large genome-wide association studies have been extremely helpful to identify new genetic risks of psychiatric diseases (e.g. PTSD, SCZ, BP, MDD), and genetic overlapping risks among these disorders and other medical diseases, and traits. A more comprehensive understanding of the genetic overlapping among these disorders is needed to clarify common pathways among diseases, or specific genes (see The Thymus below) uniquely implicated in each disorder. [Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/15833/shared-genetic-risk-factors-among-psychiatric-diseases-and-other-medical-diseases-and-traits] Biological scientists often want to determine whether two agents or events, for example, extracellular stimuli and/or intracellular signaling pathways, act synergistically when eliciting a biological response. Similarly, the nervous system is highly vulnerable to various internal and external factors which could lead to acute or chronic neurodegeneration. The morphological basis of dysfunction after injury involves loss of integrity of the extracellular matrix, neuronal circuitry, and synaptic activity and plasticity (see Thymus below). The primary injury enables a huge variety of developmentally-related biomolecules to stimulate the process of regeneration. Extracellular proteins, cell adhesion molecules, neurotrophic factors as well as different organic and inorganic compounds of the nervous tissue are necessary for recovery after injury. However, the secondary injury as well as further degeneration of the surrounding tissue, could be prevented by reactivation and recruitment of a plethora of cell signals, such as growth factors, neurotransmitters, extracellular matrix proteases, cell adhesion and recognition molecules. [Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/12990/morphogenic-cascades-underlying-regeneration-and-plasticity-after-nervous-system-injury; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022282898906551]. Note: 15- PCSK6 Chromosome This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to the trans-Golgi network where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The encoded protease is constitutively secreted into the extracellular matrix and expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain (see Thymus, Brain & Testes). This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. Some of its substrates include transforming growth factor beta related proteins, proalbumin, and von Willebrand factor. This gene is thought to play a role in tumor progression and left-right patterning. Likewise, 7- RELN This gene encodes a large secreted extracellular matrix protein thought to control cell-cell interactions critical for cell positioning and neuronal migration during brain development. This protein may be involved in schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, major depression and in migration defects associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. Mutations of this gene are associated with autosomal recessive lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Other transcript variants have been described but their full length nature has not been determined. [Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5649]. Note: Cerebellar hypoplasia can sometimes present alongside hypoplasia of the corpus callosum or pons. [Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/pontocerebellar-hypoplasia/]. GRIN2B glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type #subunit 2B [Homo sapiens (human)] – Gene – #NCBI http://rite.link/XfhU #GRINs #HumanGene #glutamates #receptors #types #HumanGenes www.myelbert.com
Endogenous regeneration in the brain is the ability of cells to engage in the repair and regeneration process. … Another benefit that can be achieved by using endogenous regeneration could be avoiding an immune response from the host. There are therapeutic approaches for boosting thymus function. Likewise, the causes age-related thymic involution have been suggested along with several possible mechanisms identified including blockages of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement, decreased self-peptide MHC molecules, and depletion of T-cell progenitors [Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4837659/; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2750859/;
Note: In the brain, hormones alter or change the production of gene products that participate in synaptic neurotransmission as well as affect the structure of brain cells. As a result, the circuitry of the brain and its capacity for neurotransmission. I give natural and holistic ways to improve your thymic hormone function and cell-mediated immunity… “Although epigenetic modulators that control effector status in Th17 cells have been identified 15, 21, the TF regulators that globally program the capacity of CD4+ T cells to dynamically control their functional identity in response to changing contexts are mostly undefined.” Retrieved from cell gene and https://www.pnas.org/content/115/8/1883 (see HPA & Pineal Body, Pituitary & Adrenal Glands below) such as…Zinc, vitamin B6, and vitamin C are perhaps the most critical. Supplementation with these nutrients has been shown to improve thymic hormone function and cell-mediated immunity. Zinc may be the critical mineral involved in thymus gland function and thymus hormone action. Hematite worn around the neck brings balance to both the etheric body and the physical body. Due to its magnetic nature and our ying-yang energies, it’s nature is to bring us back to equilibrium. Plus, Note: I go much deeper than supplements like neurometric education (read below) to avoid early thymic involution and/or dysfunction, imbalance, etc. …. (Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01745/full; https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/11340/new-insights-into-thymic-functions-during-stress-aging-and-in-disease-settings).