Written BY Tricia Cook, MEd., RSP, AOG; https://tcooktutoring.instabio.cc
After over twenty years of being in education, I provide tutoring, consulting, and coaching on dyslexia and other neurodevelopmental differences. Over the last 15 years, I’ve observed an increasing amount of affective, behavioral, sensorial, cognitive, physical, mental, and spiritual difficulties and differences along with an increased number of children being medicated, misdiagnosed or going undiagnosed; Therefore, I developed a revolutionary program that includes an evaluation that “looks at the whole person.” I work with all stakeholders on constructive engagement when learning based on my student “whole child” observation(s) inspired by Maria Montessori, Neville Lancelot Goddard, Benjamin Bloom, Peter Levine, Conrad E. and Cohen B., Dr. J. Puleo & Dr. L. Horowitz, Howard Garner, Dr. Bradley Nelsen, Hans Berger, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Grolnick, W. & Kurowski, C. and Erik Erickson. I have also developed a revolutionary training/intervention program for people with unique learning and neurodifferences and diversities . This program answers the problem and gives a solution (see below). This program is based on my own inductive reasoning, logic of evaluation, outside-of-the box problem-solving skills, and a detective sense contributed to my own gift of dyslexia, gift of knowledge and wisdom (discernment), countless hours of student observations, neruopedagogy, holism, neuroscientific, psychology, educational research and studies along with my perpetual care for children (people).
The Problem: We are seeing children/adults digress with gulf-sized disconnect and low self-esteem. Each child/adult is multidimensional and ALL our systems and senses need to function equalized, activated, and balanced for learning to take place. The triune brain which is the neomammalian complex (RAS- aka neocortex), midbrain (pons- aka limbic system), and forebrain (thymus aka reptilian) is working on a downward function, which makes learning chaotic in the mind. People are using their mental and emotional bodies to learn, not their etherical body (etheric).
The Solution: When using the etherical body, ALL our faculties, systems, and senses will function equalized, activated, and balanced. The triune brain needs to be working in an upward function (no longer perform in a protective function). With a functional upward system, the child [or adult] can trust themselves and their gifts and learning uniquenesses through spiritual mindset with self-directed neuroplasticity through ABC’s and gain God awareness (eventually unity) through PYAM Daily. They’re offered the freedom arising from conditions within the brain, senses, or sense organs and not directly caused not by external stimuli but the knowing with themselves which is patience for understanding and trusting in their subjective, divergent mind.
My motivation is to inform schools, organizations, and their families, who consider themselves weak or weary with challenges of nerurodiversity and learning uniquenesses, by implementing and working with teachers, specialist, and families through social media, courses/speaking engagements, book sales, coaching/consulting, and outreach all with my internationally recognized! As well as, I would like to share I little about myself and how I can help you by consulting and/or training! I have dyslexia myself and struggled with anger/shame due to LD (view My Story Of Dyslexia: HERE); Despite my many struggles I’ve been a Dyslexia Interventionist since 2015; I have been tutoring since 2001; I have been working with students of all ages (literally 18 months-81 years old), It has been my desire to work with the neurodiverse also since 2001 and I have heavily studied learning differences since around 2004; studied human development and education- even developed an neuropedagogy based on educational, neuroscience research; I’ve earned several certifications to help tutor and teach those with learning differences such as the following: State-Certified Reading Specialist (P-12); M. Ed., Degree in Secondary Education; Orton- Gillingham AGOPE AA Tutor Certified; Highly Qualified Status in Reading and Early Childhood Education; AMS Montessori Toddler Certified; Accredited Status 10 Program- 210 Credit Hours of Speech, Language Pathology & Bachelors; State-Teacher Certified in Early Childhood Education (P-3). I’m neurodifferent myself with deficit in language and early development in visual-spacial, so made this alternative program/message based off research of patterns (mostly empirical with my life and loved ones) along academic and neuroscientific research and visual symbols. Of course, I had lots of prayer and had guidance from questions!!!
As you know, schools, organizations, and families are desperately looking for an effective, alternative type of affordable, multisensory, handshakes-on, and interesting instruction and evaluation for learning differences; especially, families here in Alabama with our low literacy rates in varying low-high socioeconomic backgrounds. I’m now going to a school near you!! As you may know, literacy (writing, reading, and speaking) is key in growing their identity holistically through the spirit, soul and body. Therefore, I’m especially seeking to help Title I-V schools, who have had graduated students—- who are possible illiterate and/or suffer from learning and behavioral-mental challenges, now living in jail, considered to have low-end jobs, living in impoverished conditions, and have poor opportunities to flourish. They might be weak and weary, but they are truly divine. My ELBERT program will hopefully help them to heal and consider themselves as divine, increase their trust, connection, and love for others and God, hopefully get them out of unwarranted situations by developing their lives’ purpose, and change their DNA! This desire has prompted me to share more about my reasoning for My ELBERT program. With my new program, I am searching to tell my story/testimony of dyslexia by coaching, training and consulting opportunities by inform schools, organizations, and their families. I’m also interested in connecting with professionals all over the world with common interests related to alternative and holistic education such as: explicit instruction, neurodiversity awareness, emotional agility, epigenetics, neuropedagogy, self-directed neuroplasticity, literacy tutoring, learning differences, positive mindset and positive learning environments. What I’m presenting to you guys with an ‘alternative perspective’ not a typical one, because I’ve definitely have a divergent mind not a typical one personally. I’m not your traditional academia type educator (even though my extensive resume says otherwise- see HERE) in the least due to my experiences with growing up neurodifference. So please do not hesitate to contact me. I’m online but willing to travel.
My book Nurture Their Nature looks at the “whole child” and complete learning differences, including the nature and nurture of the neurodifference. To dispel learning apathy to be successful, we need to look at the “whole child” and their neuro-symatic learning functions. Learning apathy includes motivation and resilience (meaning) to be successful, you need to have a strong cognitive, behavioral, and affective-spiritual components which include the following: a healthy and functional physiological, sensory-motor systems (thymus) which is our exteroception and interception (“our senses”) including our sensory system (especially visual and auditory) along with central and peripheral nervous systems- vagus nerve which is regulates the RAS & ACC/HPA, Pons (parts of the brain), and biofield (including electromagnetic field, internal chakras); neuroplasticity and IQ; positive perceptions specifically strength and empathy (along with reduced perceptions of anger and shame); hormones released such as serotonin, dopamine, cortisol along with autonomy (for meaning, speed processing, and long-term memory) and attunement (for meaning & motivation, speed processing, and short-term memory). Therefore, when learning difficulties occur, our neurobiology (neurosystems), central and peripheral nervous system, complete chakra, and electromagnetic systems are all misfunctioning or dysregulation simultaneously and individually at different degrees and causing abnormal neuroplasticity. Retrieved from https://rdcu.be/cxsxZ .Our goal is for ALL our systems and senses to function equalized, activated, and balanced. With a functional system, the child can trust themselves through spiritual mindset with self-directed neuroplasticity through ABC’s and gain God awareness (eventually unity) through PYAM.
Also, MY ELBERT: EVERYONE LEARNS BETTER EMBRACING REVOLUTIONARY TEACHING IS The first Specialized Online Coaching Curriculum. I’ve spent the last 20 years perfecting an alternative, holistic approach to correcting learning differences, including, but not limited to, Dyslexia and Neurodevelopmental differences (view My Elbert…view program HERE).
In my experience, everyone Who Excels In Learning Has Developed A Unique Sense Of Trust In Themselves, Their Gifts, & How They Process Information!! -Tricia Cook
Again, speaking of the “whole person”- you need to examine every aspect of their learning, not just the end goal or result which is literacy and their appropriate learning behavior. Now, we know epigenetics relating to learning influences of generational anger and shame have the ability of being healed and determines which genes will be expressed and how their own systems will function. The main goal is to heal our very own DNA holistically through exercises and activities which block or ease the production of specific inflammatory proteins (toxicity) excreted by the gut-brain axis, decreasing biochemical reactions that happen between the Pineal, Pituitary, Adrenal & Carotid Glands along with by activating and aligning the Thymus (via vagus nerve chakra) and Pons, RAS & ACC/HPA (alta major and soma chakras) causing decrease in deficiencies while regulating our own biofields (including electromagnetic fields). This is the divine stamp where you are regulated and experiencing harmony, honor, wisdom, and becoming devoted to your purpose including but not limited to: love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. Against such things there is no law. ‘ Galatians 5:22-23 https://www2.bible.com/bible/111/GAL.5.22-23 You need to, again, speaking of the “whole child”- you need to examine every aspect of their learning, not just the end goal or result which is literacy and their appropriate learning behavior.
Ways to look at neurodifferences holistically: observe and take observational notes on the child…50% Nature- 50% Nurture for which you will read here all about, and I focus on epigenetics, self-directed neuroplasticity, and neuropedgagogy. What Is Epigenetics? Epigenetics is the study of how your behaviors and environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work. Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic changes are reversible and do not change your DNA sequence, but they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence or even “silences” certain genes. [Retrieved from The Answer to the Nature vs. Nurture Debate.” Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, 30 Oct. 2020, developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/what-is-epigenetics-and-how-does-it-relate-to-child-development/.; https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/disease/epigenetics.htm; https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00309/full].
What is Genetic Treatment?
Epigenetics comes to Life: Anonymous author, “DNA works by way of the same principles as the mind and neurons of the brain and body.” In the “Journal Nature Neuroscience”: Intelligence ‘Networks’ Discovered In Brain For The First Time, 2015-“Remarkably, they found that some of the same genes [M1 & M3] HERE that influence human intelligence in healthy people were also the same genes that cause impaired cognitive ability and epilepsy when mutated.” “Also, studies show that autistic people have a 20% risk of having epilepsy and that people with epilepsy have a 20% chance of being autistic. The reason for this may be that the effects of epilepsy and ASD on brain structure and function overlap.” Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/260649#link; https://ww.eurekalert.org/news-releases/675909#.YTTkWdpAnSc.twitter; https://medcraveonline.com/MOJPB/dna-the-phantom-effect-quantum-hologram-and-the-etheric-body;html?fbclid=IwAR199BUqYjWCvNGq2GCgdzl3d0n_lVzu_6na4KVVcYVuBzk-JeiM-CgRyDQ].
Cell–cell interactions (CCIs) are physical interactions between two or more cells, which can be mediated by proteins, ligands, sugars or other biomolecules. Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are physical interaction between two proteins, often involved in structural systems, signal transduction or metabolic processes. Differentially Expressed Genes are identified as more highly (or lowly) expressed in one condition versus the other after comparison of their expression values between two conditions. Genes with restricted, constitutive or unusual pattern of expression are quantified accordingly to their characteristics to avoid miscalculation or underestimation of signals. Operational taxonomic unit—a definition used to classify groups of closely related organisms. DNA sequences can be clustered according to their similarity to one another, and operational taxonomic units are defined based on the similarity threshold (usually 97% similarity) set by the researcher. (Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2003/393029/; https://www.nature.com/articles/s41576-020-00292-x#Sec22)
The nervous system is highly vulnerable to various internal and external factors which could lead to acute or chronic neurodegeneration. The morphological basis of dysfunction after injury involves loss of integrity of the extracellular matrix, neuronal circuitry, and synaptic activity and plasticity (see Thymus below).
The primary injury enables a huge variety of developmentally-related biomolecules to stimulate the process of regeneration. Extracellular proteins, cell adhesion molecules, neurotrophic factors as well as different organic and inorganic compounds of the nervous tissue are necessary for recovery after injury. However, the secondary injury as well as further degeneration of the surrounding tissue, could be prevented by reactivation and recruitment of a plethora of cell signals, such as growth factors, neurotransmitters, extracellular matrix proteases, cell adhesion and recognition molecules. [Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/12990/morphogenic-cascades-underlying-regeneration-and-plasticity-after-nervous-system-injury].
With epigenetics, we need to discover how to improve thymic hormone function and cell health including cell-mediated immunity that reduces anxiety with increased self-directed neuroplasticity. -Tricia Cook
What is GenBank?
GenBank ® is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences:
-Learning Disabilities: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/?term=Homo+sapies+learning+disabilities
Note: COMT- 22 Catechol-O-methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catecholamines, including the neurotransmitters’ dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Furthermore, Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT-22), an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of catecholamine neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), can affect executive functions involved in cognitive flexibility, impulse control, abstract thought, and the ability to follow instructions (1, 2, 3) -(COMT-22 also in addictions and ADHD below).
Note: 17- lNF1 provided by HGNC gene product appears to function as a negative regulator of the RAS signal transduction of the pathyways that control such processes as actin cytoskeleton integrity, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, and cell migration (Read About RAS and Cerebral Cortex BELOW). The cytoskeleton provides structural integrity and determines localization of proteins and organelles throughout the cell [aka cell health]. The cytoskeleton is a structure that helps cells maintain their shape and internal organization, and it also provides mechanical support that enables cells to carry (see 7 under dyslexia & cell health below) out essential functions like division and movement [Retrieved from https://www.cell.com/neuron/pdf/S0896-6273%2812%2901034-3.pdf; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728923/].
Can we turn off this production with Epigentics?? Holistic, Alternative, Natural means? I say…YES
Note: 15- DNAAF4 provided by HGNC gene encodes a tetratricopeptide [The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) is a structural motif. It consists of a degenerate 34 amino acid tandem repeat identified in a wide variety of proteins] repeat domain-containing protein. The encoded protein interacts with estrogen receptors and the heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90. An homologous protein in rat has been shown to function in neuronal migration in the developing neocortex [read more below]. A chromosomal translocation involving this gene is associated with a susceptibility to developmental dyslexia. Mutations in this gene are associated with deficits in reading and spelling.
Note: 6- KIAA0319 provided by HGNC gene for kidney disease (PKD) domains. The encoded protein may play a role in the development of the cerebral cortex by regulating neuronal migration and cell adhesion. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with dyslexia. (see the Thymus- It plays a role in immunity, autoimmunity, and aging. This gene encodes a doublecortin domain-containing family member. The doublecortin domain has been demonstrated to bind tubulin and enhance microtubule polymerization. This family member is thought to function in neuronal migration where it may affect the signaling of primary cilia. Mutations in this gene have been associated with reading disability (RD) type 2, also referred to as developmental dyslexia.
Can we turn off developmental dyslexia with Epigentics?? Holistic, Alternative, Natural means? I say…YES
Note: 7- AUTS2 provided by HGNC gene has been implicated in neurodevelopment and as a candidate gene for numerous neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, and developmental delay. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with non-neurological disorders, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, aging of the skin, early-onset androgenetic alopecia, and certain cancers [see thymus below]. 7-also in high levels (chemical base in DNA such as thymine) in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis.
16- HP restricted to liver. This gene encodes a preproprotein, which is processed to yield both alpha and beta chains, which subsequently combine as a tetramer to produce haptoglobin. Haptoglobin functions to bind free plasma hemoglobin, which allows degradative enzymes to gain access to the hemoglobin, while at the same time preventing loss of iron through the kidneys and protecting the kidneys from damage by hemoglobin. Mutations in this gene and/or its regulatory regions cause ahaptoglobinemia or hypohaptoglobinemia. This gene has also been linked to diabetic nephropathy, the incidence of coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory disease behavior, primary sclerosing cholangitis, susceptibility to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, and a reduced incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The protein encoded also exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria. A similar duplicated gene is located next to this gene on chromosome 16. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
Note: In a 2018 study, They found that greater changes in gene expression in the upper layers 2/3 neurons and microglia predicted worse behavioral deficits. These results lend support to previous research suggesting that changes in neurons, as well as non-neuronal cells such as microglia, may be involved in autism. (Retrieved from https://www.autismbrainnet.org/2019/07/10/single-cell-study-identifies-brain-cell-types-linked-to-autism/) Note:
Can we turn off immense anger/hatred and shame/grief with Epigentics?? Holistic, Alternative, Natural means? I say…YES
Schizophrenia & Psychological Disorders
-11 DRD2 This gene encodes the D2 subtype of the dopamine receptor. This G-protein coupled receptor inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity. A missense mutation in this gene causes myoclonus dystonia; other mutations have been associated with schizophrenia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. A third variant has been described, but it has not been determined whether this form is normal or due to aberrant splicing.
Note: Gene Methylation in Specific Brain Regions involves the biological processes associated with neuronal axon development, intercellular adhesion, and cell morphology changes and, specifically, in PI3K-Akt, AMPK, and MAPK signaling pathways. AMPK activation has also recently been linked to circadian clock regulation, which couples daily light and dark cycles to control of physiology in a wide variety of tissues through tightly coordinated transcriptional programs84. (see Thymus Below, Testes) (Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2020/8047146/; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249400/.)
Can we turn off (DOC) Disorders of Conscious with Epigentics?? Holistic, Alternative, Natural means? I say…YES
Note: 6- KIAA0319 provided by HGNC gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through, its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis ankylosing spondylitis, tuberculosis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and cancer. Mutations in this gene affect susceptibility to cerebral malaria, septic shock, and Alzheimer disease [see RAS/pons/thymus, hippocamp and insensitivity and depression below].
Can we turn off Neurodevelopmental disorders with Epigentics?? Holistic, Alternative, Natural means? I say…YES
Note: COMT-22 Catechol-O-methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catecholamines, including the neurotransmitters’ dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Furthermore, Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT-22), an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of catecholamine neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), can affect executive functions involved in cognitive flexibility, impulse control, abstract thought, and the ability to follow instructions (1, 2, 3)-(COMT-22 also in addictions and learning disabilities).
Note: 11- DRD2 provided by HGNC neuronal survival gene in the adult brain; Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s; stress response and in the biology of mood disorders.
Note: No one knows exactly what causes a person to have ADHD, but some researchers have looked at a neurotransmitter called dopamine as a possible contributor to ADHD. Dopamine allows us to regulate emotional responses and take action to achieve specific rewards. It’s responsible for feelings of pleasure and reward. Dopamine (DA) is a key brain neurotransmitter that contributes to control of different functions, such as cognition, motivation and rewards, as well as locomotion [1–3]. Alterations in dopaminergic function represent a hallmark in numerous mental diseases, including schizophrenia. [Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00034/full]
Note: brain, adrenal, thyroid below
Gene therapy? Focus…
What are mitochondria?
Mitochondria are compartmentalized, dual-membrane organelles that are responsible for most energy production in the cell. Mitochondria contain their own DNA and ribosomes. Their primary function is to convert energy from glucose into ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria also play an important role in the cellular stress response through processes such as autophagy, apoptosis, and hypoxia. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many human diseases including cancer, metabolic syndrome & neurodegenerative disorders, ex. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) (Retrieved from https://www.novusbio.com/research-areas/cellular-markers/mitochondrial-markers.html; https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00393/full).
What is Proteomics?
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteomes. A proteome is a set of proteins produced in an organism, system, or biological context. … Proteomics is used to investigate: when and where proteins are expressed also the ates of protein production, degradation, and steady-state abundance
Think about mitochondria and cell health? Also, on a cellular level, think about the Epigenetics Modulators?
2 – Retrieved fom https://www.researchgate.net/figure/a-The-three-main-components-of-the-cytoskeleton-actin-microtubules-and-intermediate_fig2_345153653
Epigenetic modulators thus serve to transduce signals from environmental agents, injury, inflammation, aging and other cellular stressors towards modifiers to alter the chromatin states of tumor suppressors or oncogenes and to promote epigenetic flexibility and the acquisition of stem-like features early during:
- Epigenetic mechanisms form a layer of control within a cell that regulates gene expression and silencing. …
- Three different epigenetic mechanisms have been identified: DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA (ncRNA)-associated gene silencing (“turning off dyslexia”).
“Cells are continuously dying in our body due to infections, cell turnover, developmental processes, and other extrinsic stress…”: In these chromosomes…most present in neurodiversity needing cell health:
17 (cell gene– lNF1 provided by HGNC also ACTL6A ) Recognize- meaning- knowledge (RAS- see also 11 below/ARAS-Thymus)
22 (connection gene– COMT 22 provided by HGNC ) Recall- motivation- wisdom (Pons)
11 (neuronal survival cell gene– DRD2 provided by HGNC ) Remember- meaning & motivation-understanding (see 17 also ARAS//Thymus/Testes)
Intercellular Interactions For Gene Expression
Signalling pathways include the network of biomolecules that serve to transmit signals and induce cellular responses. Post-translational modification of proteins is the most common way signals are propagated. See thymus discussion below, to learn more about the intercellular signalling pathways that has become a common analysis performed across diverse disciplines. (Retrieved from Cell death: From its Induction to the Removal of Dying Cells! https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/27626; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532999/; https://www.nature.com/articles/s41576-020-00292-x].
Cellular Senescence in Learning Disabilities and Neurodegenerative Disorders
Although several factors can induce senescence, DNA damage, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and altered proteostasis have been shown to play a role in its onset. (Retrieved from Cellular Senescence in Neurodegenerative Diseases https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncel.2020.00016; https://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/7280690.pdf; https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200129174540.htm).
A slew of 17 studies reveals the first comprehensive list of all cell types in the primary motor complex, offering “a starting point for tracing cellular networks to understand how they control our body and mind and how they are disrupted in mental and physical disorders,” reports ScienceDaily. From the report: The 17 studies, appearing online Oct. 6 in the journal Nature, are the result of five years of work by a huge consortium of researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health’s Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to identify the myriad of different cell types in one portion of the brain. It is the first step in a long-term project to generate an atlas of the entire brain to help understand how the neural networks in our head control our body and mind and how they are disrupted in cases of mental and physical problems. While researchers have discovered numerous cell types in the brain, this atlas of all cell types in one area — the primary motor cortex — is the first comprehensive list and a starting point for tracing cellular networks to understand how they control our body and mind and how they are disrupted in mental and physical disorders. (Retrieved from https://science.slashdot.org/story/21/10/08/223218/neuroscientists-roll-out-first-comprehensive-atlas-of-brain-cells; https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03950-0).
*10- Thymus, see brain and testes association HERE. TBATA provided by HGNC gene encodes a protein that regulates thymic epithelial cell proliferation and thymus size. It has been identified as a ligand for the class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA-I) in thymus. Studies of the orthologous mouse protein suggest that it may also play a role in spermatid differentiation, as well as in neuronal morphogenesis [a class of large neurons present in the peripheral nervous system below] and synaptic plasticity. As well, the energy cycles which are known as circadian rhythms, which were popularized by Nobel Prize-winning researchers Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young. They highlighted that every cell in the body is set to follow this biological clock which determines your sleep, appetite, hormone releases, and energy levels. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with susceptibility for multiple sclerosis (MS). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants (see Thymus below). “The circadian rhythm of about 24 hours is a fundamental physiological function observed in almost all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans. Identification of clock genes has allowed us to study the molecular bases for circadian behaviors and temporal physiological processes such as hormonal secretion, and has prompted the idea that molecular clocks reside not only in a central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of hypothalamus in mammals, but also in peripheral tissues, even in immortalized cells.” Furthermore …(See RAS, Pons, Thymus below, and see brain and testes association HERE-Retrieved from Thymus Function and Aging: A Focus on Thymic Epithelial Cells https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/24158 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15834108/; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1471-2199-5-18).
3 – The vitamin D Receptor and T cell function
Where is the vitamin D receptor?
In humans, the vitamin D receptor is encoded by the VDR gene located on chromosome 12q13. 11. Like the iNKT cells, there are also fewer CD8αα/TCRαβ precursors in the thymus of VDR-KO animals. Moreover, to complete development CD8αα/TCRαβ cells must travel from the thymus to the gastrointestinal tract where IL-15 induces proliferation and upregulation of CD8αα. Due to decreased levels of IL-15 receptor expression VDR-KO CD8αα/TCRαβ cells proliferate poorly, resulting in a diminished mature CD8αα/TCRαβ population in the VDR-KO gut (Yu et al., 2008; Bruce and Cantorna, 2011; Ooi et al., 2012). These data illustrate that in contrast to conventional T cells, VDR expression is mandatory for development of both iNKT cells and CD8αα/TCRαβ T cells. VDR is expressed in most tissues of the body, and regulates transcription of about 900 genes involved in intestinal and renal transport of calcium and other minerals. In a study by Patel et al. (1995) plasma toxins from uremic patients was shown to bind to the patients VDR, thereby disrupting binding of VDR-RXR to DNA resulting in a diminished VDR response. It so appears that posttranslational modifications of VDR adjust VDR activity in both health and disease. [Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2013.00148/full].
Thymic involution, probably through the hormonal turmoil and cell health, provoke many of our learning and memory problems. -Tricia Cook
4 – Elements of the figure were generated using Biorender.com.
There are therapeutic approaches for boosting thymus function. Likewise, the causes age-related thymic involution have been suggested along with several possible mechanisms identified including blockages of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement, decreased self-peptide MHC molecules, and depletion of T-cell progenitors [Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2750859/;
Note: In the brain, hormones alter or change the production of gene products that participate in synaptic neurotransmission as well as affect the structure of brain cells. As a result, the circuitry of the brain and its capacity for neurotransmission. I give natural and holistic ways to improve your thymic hormone function and cell-mediated immunity… “Although epigenetic modulators that control effector status in Th17 cells have been identified 15, 21, the TF regulators that globally program the capacity of CD4+ T cells to dynamically control their functional identity in response to changing contexts are mostly undefined.” Retrieved from cell gene and https://www.pnas.org/content/115/8/1883 (see HPA & Pineal Body, Pituitary & Adrenal Glands below) such as…Zinc, vitamin B6, and vitamin C are perhaps the most critical. Supplementation with these nutrients has been shown to improve thymic hormone function and cell-mediated immunity. Zinc may be the critical mineral involved in thymus gland function and thymus hormone action. Note: I go much deeper than supplements like neurometric education (read below) to avoid early thymic involution and/or dysfunction, imbalance, etc. …. (Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01745/full; https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/11340/new-insights-into-thymic-functions-during-stress-aging-and-in-disease-settings).
*ACE- (aka Anger Enzyme) Angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199), is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body (See Gut-brain axis and Neurotoxicity). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (see hypothalamus below)- Stress induces the hypothalamic production and release of CRH, which then causes the activation of the CRH receptor (CRHR) type 1 (CRHR-1) in the anterior pituitary (see HPA below) to stimulate ACTH release, as well as proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and processing. Rationale: The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test has been used as a diagnostic test in both adrenal insufficiency and Cushing syndrome. Glucocorticoids are essential steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. (Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1819560/; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1819560/; https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/7323/involvement-of-neuro-immune-mechanism-and-brain-gut-axis-in-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders#articles).
Where is the vitamin D receptor?
In humans, the vitamin D receptor is encoded by the VDR gene located on chromosome 12q13. 11. VDR is expressed in most tissues of the body, and regulates transcription of genes involved in intestinal and renal transport of calcium and other minerals.
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